What is Monel?
Monel is an alloy created from a composition of copper and nickel, along with limited amounts of iron, manganese, silicon, and carbon. Monel consists of about 60% copper which eliminates it from being a cupronickel alloy. The alloy was patented in the year 1906.
Monel alloys are more robust than pure nickel alloys and therefore are unsusceptible to corrosion caused by many aggressive agents, as well as fast flowing seawater. Monel metal can be created via hot and cold machining, working, and welding.
Monel is an expensive alloy and its application is limited to industries where cheaper alternatives are not an option. Fasteners made from the Monel alloy, like Monel rivets, are mostly used for industries like aerospace, oil production and refining, and marine.
7 Important Types Of Monel Alloys Used For Fasteners
Monel 400 is known as a puritan alloy. Monel 400 was developed in 1901 and is mainly composed of 52% Nickel and 67% copper. Monel 400 fasteners can only be hardened by cold working. The alloy exhibits great strength, ductility, thermal conductivity, and superior resistance to corrosion even when exposed to various environments, either alkaline or acidic. The alloy is particularly suitable for reducing conditions.
The alloy is applied in chemical and hydrocarbon processing, marine engineering, valves, heat exchangers, and pumps. A large section of Monel 400 is used in alkylation units, mostly in the reacting section that comes in contact with concentrated hydrofluoric acid.
The Monel 404 alloy possesses a high copper content, making it a good candidate for applications in the electric and electronic industries. The elements used to create Monel 404 are adjusted to ensure that the alloy builds up low Curie temperature, low permeability, and good brazing. Hot working cannot be applied to Monel 404. The alloy can only be welded and forged by using common welding techniques. Cold working may be done using soft die materials and standard tools.
Monel 404 alloy is commonly applied in specialized electrical and electronics. Other than that the alloy is also used in transistor capsules as well as ceramic and metal seals.
Monel 405 is a malleable nickel-copper alloy that is resistant to various corrosive conditions. Monel 405 finds its application in various environments that might range from being mildly or neutrally oxidizing and/or moderately reducing conditions.
The alloy is chiefly used in the oil, chemical, and marine industries
This alloy is the free machining variant of Monel 400. The Monel R405 alloy is made from nickel and copper along with sulfur added in small amounts to provide sulfide inclusions that act as chip breakers during machining.
Alike Monel 400, Monel R405 is unsusceptible to salt and caustic solutions as well as steam and sea water high temperatures as well as. Monel R405 can only be hardened by cold working. Monel R405 This nickel alloy exhibits resistance to corrosion, high strength, and good weldability. Monel R405 is especially resistant to de-aerated hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids.
Alloy R-405 is chiefly used in the marine, chemical, and oil industries.
Also referred to as Alloy 450, Monel 450 comprises 70% copper and 30% nickel, giving it superior weldability properties. Monel 450 is characterized by good fatigue strength, high thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and bio-fouling in seawater.
Monel 450 is mostly used for condenser plates, seawater condensers, evaporator tubes, distiller tubes, heat exchanger tubes, and saltwater piping.
Monel K500 is a popular alloy used in high-performing applications, featuring essential properties like excellent corrosion resistance, great strength, and hardness. The alloy’s properties are enhanced by incorporating titanium and aluminum into the nickel-copper base and by heating it under controlled conditions. The corrosion resistance of Monel K500 is somewhat similar to that of Monel 400 with the exception that Monel K500 is more prone to stress- corrosion cracking in some environments in age-hardened conditions.
Monel K500 is typically used for the following applications-
- Pumps and valves, propellers, and pump shafts for the manufacture of perchloroethylene and chlorinated plastics.
- Valve components for pump shafts, ships, propeller shafts, offshore drilling towers, impellers, bolting, instrumentation components, and oil well drill collars for oil and gas production.
- Centrifugal pumps in the marine industry.
The Monel 502 metal is a nickel-copper superalloy. It is machined similar to that of austenitic stainless steel. Conventional techniques have to be used to form the alloy and weld it. Monel 502 responds to annealing at about 1900°F. The is then quenched in water and then developed from 1850°F to 2100°F. Monel 502 can also be cold worked by employing traditional methods. The superalloy has been known to function well at high temperatures and is designed to endure extreme forms of mechanical stress.
The alloy is best suited for the marine industries with applications in valve components, fasteners, pump shafting, and propeller shafts.
When we speak about Monel fasteners, there are many types available, all containing about 67% nickel with some comprising small amounts of manganese, iron, carbon, aluminum, titanium, and/or silicon. At KG Lilly we distribute, provide, and customize Monel fasteners that are suitable for high-performance industries. To know more about our customization options give us a call or send an email.